The Francophone Health and Environment Society (SFSE, Société francophone de santé et environnement) 2020 Congress 22nd October 2020 To characterise the chemical state of aquatic environments, the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires a monitoring based on the chemical analysis of a list of priority substances and substance groups (45). This provides very limited information considering the thousands of chemical molecules present in water. The regulatory monitoring in force is therefore insufficient to evaluate the state of contamination of aquatic environments by chemical substances. In fact, the vast majority of chemical substances and their transformation products have not been researched and are therefore not taken into account in evaluating the chemical quality of aquatic environments, even though they contribute to the chemical risk. In response to these observations, new monitoring strategies have been developed which include measuring methods that integrate the complexity of contaminations and take into account the risks associated with the effects of mixtures of substances. Among these new strategies, methods based on biological effects have been identified as complementary to the approach based on chemical analysis. The National Institute for Industrial Environment and Risks (Ineris, Institut national de l'environnement industriel et des risques) has been working to support public authorities to implement the WFDs since 2003. It has also been developing in vitro and in vivo bio-analytical tools since 2000, in particular on the effects of endocrine disruptors. The Institute has written a briefing aimed at the managers responsible for the WFD. It provides a situational analysis of the actions carried out at national and European levels to apply bio-analytical methods for the chemical quality monitoring of water bodies. It also gives some perspective on the future introduction of these methods into regulatory monitoring.