INERIS has a duty to participate in the effort to create awareness and to provide information through the widest possible dissemination of the results of its research and its studies. These media also propose providing the keys to tackle and to understand the current stakes in the research with regard to protecting health and the environment.


The development of improved models for flashing liquid releases in industrial environments would be achieved by a concerted action comprising the design and execution of experimental program. In the framework of the FLIE project [1], INERIS performed large-scale releases under realistic conditions to provide validation data for the developed models and simulation tools.

The project has provided high-quality data sets, both at laboratory scale [2] and at large scale [3], of the flashing expansion in the near field. The experiments have employed advanced measurement techniques such as laser techniques, as well as conventional techniques.  The task of INERIS for FLIE project was to carry out large-scale experiments to collect data useful for the improvement of the existing dispersion models. A variety of experimental conditions were studied:
- Type of LPG (propane, butane)
- Pressure in the tank
- Nozzle configuration (size and shape)
-Obstacle configuration (free jet, impinging jet, distance of impact)

INERIS carried out nearly a hundred experiments [3] and recorded sufficient exploitable data to be able to improve the dispersion models in the near field as well as the source term models. The obtained data have been used to assist in the development and validation of detailed models of the source processes during accidental release of pressurized liquids. Indeed these experimental measurement data are still being used to improve the calculation of the mass flow rate [4], the understanding of the breakup phenomena ([5], [6]), the modeling of the cooling effect [6] within the jet, the generation of rain out by free jets or impinging jets and pool evaporation [5], and the whole assessment [7] of a term source for atmospheric dispersion model.

LACOME, Jean-Marc (Engineer)
Tél : (33) (0)3 44 55 61 34
Fax : (33) (0)3 44 55 62 00

Parc Technologique ALATA - B.P. N°2
60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte


    1.FLIE internet site:
    2. D. Yildiz, J.P.A.J. van Beeck & M.L. Riethmuller. (2002). Global rainbow thermometry applied to a flashing two-phase R134-A Jet ,11th International Symposium on Application of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, July 8-11, 2002.
    3. P. Bonnet, P. Bricout, S. Duplantier, D. Jamois, JM Lacome. Flashing Liquids in Industrial Environment (Flie Project) - Description of experimental large-scale phase release jets two-phase release jets Report N°41508, INERIS, 2005.
    4. Hebrard Jérôme, and Lacome Jean-Marc. “Evaluation of Two-Phase Flow Models for Accidental Release and Comparison with Experimental Data.” In 11. International Conference Multiphase Flow in Industrial Plant (MFIP’2008), 747–54. ANIMP Servizu SRL. Milano, 2008.
    5. Bonnet Patrick, Jean-Marc Lacome. “Experimental Study of Accidental Industrial LPG Releases: Rain out Investigation.” In AICHE Spring National Meeting, Orlando, FL, 40th Loss Prevention Symposium, 2006.
    6. C. Lemofack, J.M. Lacome, J. Reveillon , F.X. Demoulin . Numerical modelling of liquid jets atomisation due to leakage of liquefied gas storage. ICLASS 2012, 12th Triennial International Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, Heidelberg, Germany, September 2-6, 2012.
    7. Jean-Marc Lacome, Cédric Lemofack, Julien Reveillon, and F. X. Demoulin. “Numerical Modelling of Flashing Liquid Jets due to Leakage of Liquefied Gas Storage.” In 43. ESReDA Seminar on Land Use Planning and Risk-Informed Decision Making“ Aménagement Du Territoire et Prise de Décision En Maîtrise Des Risques,” NC, 2012.


  • Video 1

Free jet of propane; storage pressure: 5 bars; 8 mm diameter


  • Video 2

Impinging jet of propane; storage pressure: 9 bars; 10 mm diameter